Heidelberg Catechism — Lord’s Day 5

Second Part: Grace

12.   Since, then, by the righteous judgment of God we deserve temporal and eternal punishment, how may we escape this punishment and be again received into favor?

God wills that His justice be satisfied;1 therefore, we must make full satisfaction to that justice, either by ourselves or by another.2

Ex 20:5, 23:7; Rom 2:1-11; Isa 53:11; Rom 8:3-4

Exodus 20:5
5 You shall not bow down to them or serve them, for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers on the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me,

Exodus 23:7
7 Keep far from a false charge, and do not kill the innocent and righteous, for I will not acquit the wicked.

Romans 2:1-11
God’s Righteous Judgment
2:1 Therefore you have no excuse, O man, every one of you who judges. For in passing judgment on another you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, practice the very same things. 2 We know that the judgment of God rightly falls on those who practice such things. 3 Do you suppose, O man—you who judge those who practice such things and yet do them yourself—that you will escape the judgment of God? 4 Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? 5 But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed.

6 He will render to each one according to his works: 7 to those who by patience in well-doing seek for glory and honor and immortality, he will give eternal life; 8 but for those who are self-seeking [1] and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, there will be wrath and fury. 9 There will be tribulation and distress for every human being who does evil, the Jew first and also the Greek, 10 but glory and honor and peace for everyone who does good, the Jew first and also the Greek. 11 For God shows no partiality.

Isaiah 53:11
11 Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see [2] and be satisfied;
by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant,
make many to be accounted righteous,
and he shall bear their iniquities.

Romans 8:3-4
3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, [3] he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

13   Can we ourselves make this satisfaction?

Certainly not; on the contrary, we daily increase our guilt.1

Job 9:2-3, 15:15-16; Ps 130:3; Mt 6:12, 16:26; Rom 2:4-5

Job 9:2-3
2 “Truly I know that it is so:
But how can a man be in the right before God?
3 If one wished to contend with him,
one could not answer him once in a thousand times.

Job 15:15-16
15 Behold, God [1] puts no trust in his holy ones,
and the heavens are not pure in his sight;
16 how much less one who is abominable and corrupt,
a man who drinks injustice like water!

Psalm 130:3
<< Psalm 129 | Psalm 130 | Psalm 131 >>
3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities,
O Lord, who could stand?

Matthew 6:12
12 and forgive us our debts,
as we also have forgiven our debtors.

Matthew 16:26
26 For what will it profit a man if he gains the whole world and forfeits his soul? Or what shall a man give in return for his soul?

Romans 2:4-5
4 Or do you presume on the riches of his kindness and forbearance and patience, not knowing that God’s kindness is meant to lead you to repentance? 5 But because of your hard and impenitent heart you are storing up wrath for yourself on the day of wrath when God’s righteous judgment will be revealed.

14   Can any mere creature make satisfaction for us?

None; for first, God will not punish any other creature for the sin which man committed;1 and further, no mere creature can sustain the burden of God’s eternal wrath against sin and redeem others from it.2

Ezek 18:4, 20; Heb 2:14-18; Ps 130:3; Nah 1:6

Ezekiel 18:4
4 Behold, all souls are mine; the soul of the father as well as the soul of the son is mine: the soul who sins shall die.

Ezekiel 18:20
20 The soul who sins shall die. The son shall not suffer for the iniquity of the father, nor the father suffer for the iniquity of the son. The righteousness of the righteous shall be upon himself, and the wickedness of the wicked shall be upon himself.

Hebrews 2:14-18
14 Since therefore the children share in flesh and blood, he himself likewise partook of the same things, that through death he might destroy the one who has the power of death, that is, the devil, 15 and deliver all those who through fear of death were subject to lifelong slavery. 16 For surely it is not angels that he helps, but he helps the offspring of Abraham. 17 Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people. 18 For because he himself has suffered when tempted, he is able to help those who are being tempted.

Psalm 130:3
3 If you, O Lord, should mark iniquities,
O Lord, who could stand?

Nahum 1:6
6 Who can stand before his indignation?
Who can endure the heat of his anger?
His wrath is poured out like fire,
and the rocks are broken into pieces by him.

15   What kind of mediator and redeemer, then, must we seek?

One who is a true1 and righteous man,2 and yet more powerful than all creatures, that is, one who is also true God.3

1 Cor 15:21-22, 25-26; Heb 2:17; Isa 53:11; Jer 13:16; 2 Cor 5:21; Heb 7:26; Isa 7:14, 9:6; Jer 23:6; Jn 1:1; Rom 8:3-4; Heb 7:15-16

1 Corinthians 15:21-22
21 For as by a man came death, by a man has come also the resurrection of the dead. 22 For as in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive.

1 Corinthians 15:25-26
25 For he must reign until he has put all his enemies under his feet. 26 The last enemy to be destroyed is death.

Hebrews 2:17
17 Therefore he had to be made like his brothers in every respect, so that he might become a merciful and faithful high priest in the service of God, to make propitiation for the sins of the people.

Isaiah 53:11
11 Out of the anguish of his soul he shall see [1] and be satisfied;
by his knowledge shall the righteous one, my servant,
make many to be accounted righteous,
and he shall bear their iniquities.

Jeremiah 13:16
16 Give glory to the Lord your God
before he brings darkness,
before your feet stumble
on the twilight mountains,
and while you look for light
he turns it into gloom
and makes it deep darkness.

2 Corinthians 5:21
21 For our sake he made him to be sin who knew no sin, so that in him we might become the righteousness of God.

Hebrews 7:26
26 For it was indeed fitting that we should have such a high priest, holy, innocent, unstained, separated from sinners, and exalted above the heavens.

Isaiah 7:14
14 Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel. [2]

Isaiah 9:6
6 For to us a child is born,
to us a son is given;
and the government shall be upon [3] his shoulder,
and his name shall be called [4]
Wonderful Counselor, Mighty God,
Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.

Jeremiah 23:6
6 In his days Judah will be saved, and Israel will dwell securely. And this is the name by which he will be called: ‘The Lord is our righteousness.’

John 1:1
The Word Became Flesh
1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.

Romans 8:3-4
3 For God has done what the law, weakened by the flesh, could not do. By sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, [5] he condemned sin in the flesh, 4 in order that the righteous requirement of the law might be fulfilled in us, who walk not according to the flesh but according to the Spirit.

Hebrews 7:15-16
15 This becomes even more evident when another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, 16 who has become a priest, not on the basis of a legal requirement concerning bodily descent, but by the power of an indestructible life.

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About John
A follower of Christ and sinner who needs his grace everyday.

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